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Tuesday, December 28, 2010

SOME IMPORTANT LINKS

salam

How are you people out there .... hope you guys are doing great ... well below are some important downloading links for several softwares... ENJOY

INPAGE 3.0
http://www.vijaymukhi.com/documents/books/csbasics/chap1.htm

TO FIND OUT THE CONFIGURATION OF GAMES
www.systemrequirementslab.com


VISUAL STUDIO DOWNLOAD LINK
http://www.microsoft.com/express/Downloads/

if you guys need more links plz reply

Thursday, December 23, 2010

LIST OF LEADERS OF ASIA

Asia

Afghanistan

Ahmad Shah Abdali (1723–1773) unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. His mausoleum is in Kandahar, Afghanistan, where he is fondly known as Ahmad Shah Baba (Father of Afghanistan).


Azerbaijan

Mammed Amin Rasulzade is the founding father of Azerbaijan. Mehemmed Emin Resulzade (Azerbaijani: Məhəmməd Əmin Axund Hacı Molla Ələkbər oğlu Rəsulzadə, Turkish: Mehmed Emin Resulzâde; 31 January 1884, Novkhana, near Baku — 6 March 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918–1920). His expression "Bir kərə yüksələn bayraq, bir daha enməz!" ("The flag once raised will never fall!") has become the motto of the independence movement in Azerbaijan in the 20th century.


Bangladesh

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding leader of Bangladesh.
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920–1975), is generally considered as the founder of the People's Republic of Bangladesh and was also the first President of Bangladesh. A charismatic politician and popularly called "Bangabandhu" (friend of the Bengal), Mujib's political career featured a struggle for democracy and defiance against military rule in Pakistan. He declared Bangladesh's independence in March 1971[19] immediately after the Pakistan Army began its infamous Operation Searchlight massacre and was subsequently arrested and kept in solitary confinement in West Pakistan throughout the nine-month long bloody war. He was released in January 1972 and returned to Bangladesh to lead the newly independent country.
Mujib's administration would prove to be inept in governing the country wrecked by war and famine. In the mid-night of 15 August 1975, a group of disgruntled army officers brutally killed him along with most of his family members at his private residence in Dhaka.
In an opinion poll conducted by the BBC Bengali service in 2003, he was voted as the greatest Bengali of all times.


Bhutan

Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal (1594–1651) fled Tibet and unified the fiefdoms of Bhutan. He established the dual system of shared power between secular and Buddhist leadership that continues as a tradition to the present.


Burma

General Aung San is the founding father of Burma (also known as Myanmar). Although he did not live to see the country's independence, he is credited in forming the basic structure of the independence movement and government. Aung San started his political career in 1930 as the editor of Rangoon University's Newspaper – where he accused one of the British administrators of misconduct. In late 1940 he went to Japanese controlled Taiwan and Xiamen to receive military training, and he led the Burmese National Army, spearheading the Japanese invasion of Burma. Later, he switched sides to the Allies, and helped in the Burma Campaign. After the war, he was appointed to the government of a returning British Administration, and was able to negotiate Burma's independence. He helped organized the Panglong Agreement in February 1947, achieving independence for all Burmese territories. However, on Saturday, 19 July 1947, Aung San, along with his cabinet ministers, was assassinated at the secretariat building in Rangoon.


Republic of China

Sun Yat-sen is revered as the "Father of the Country" (國父) in the Republic of China. However, following the Chinese Civil War, the country was split up into two states. The new nations were the modern day People's Republic of China, and the Republic of China, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Mao Zedong is commonly accredited with being the architect of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek is accredited with being the first leader of the constitutional Republic of China.


India

Portrait of Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) is often referred to as the founding father of India. He was one of the top leaders of the Indian National Congress which struggled for the liberation of India from British ruleJawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), the first Prime Minister of India and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, India's First Deputy Prime Minister, are also considered as founding fathers.[21] It also refers to Dr.Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (1891–1956), the architect of the Indian constitution, also an educationist, prominent political figure and India's first law minister. Indian constitution provided constitutional guarantees and protections for a wide range of civil liberties for individual citizens, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability and the outlawing of all forms of discrimination. Ambedkar argued for extensive economic and social rights for yong boy. The Constitution was adopted on 9 August 1949 by the Constituent Assembly.
Although this usage is declining, when used in the plural, as the "Founding fathers" it usually refers to the members of the Constitutional Assembly's Draft Committee. Ironically the Drafting Committee also included women among its ranks.


Indonesia

Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta are the founding fathers of Indonesia. They both signed the Proclamation of Independence which then read by Soekarno, proclaiming the independence of Indonesia from the Netherlands on 17 August 1945. A day later, they were elected respectively as the first President and Vice President of Indonesia. As the Netherlands did not recognize the independece, both of them were prominent figures and were seen as symbol of unity among Indonesian people to fight against Dutch during the National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. In August 1949, Hatta headed a delegation to theHague for a Round Table Conference which then led to the recognition of Indonesian independence by the Netherlands in 23 December 1949.


Iran

Cyrus the Great (600 BC – 530 BC) was the founder of the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty an empire without precedent—a first world-empire of historical importance[25] and perhaps the most wealthy and magnificent in history.


Korea

Hwanung (환웅;桓雄) and his son Dangun Wanggeom (단군왕검; 檀君王儉) are legendary founders of Gojoseon, the first kingdom of Korea. The founding date is usually calculated as 3 October 2333 BC; 3 October is a South Korean national holiday known as Gaecheonjeol (개천절, 開天節, "Festival of the Opening of Heaven").


Malaysia

Tunku Abdul Rahman (8 February 1903 – 6 December 1990) usually known as "the Tunku" (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya from 1955, and the country's first Prime Minister from independence in 1957. He remained Prime Minister after SabahSarawak, and Singapore joined in 1963 to form Malaysia.


Mongolia

Genghis Khan posthumous portrait
Chinggis Khagan (c.1162–1227), who by uniting the nomadic tribes founded the Mongol Empire, is generally regarded as the father of modern-day Mongolia. Although downcast during the communist-era, Genghis Khan's reputation surged after the democratic revolution in 1990. Modern Mongolia is often called "Genghis's Mongolia".


Pakistan

Muhammad Ali Jinnah, as a young lawyer.
Pakistan's founding father is Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948), an Indian Muslim Barrister, originally from the Indian National Congress and later theMuslim League, who fought for the rights of Muslim minority in India, is widely held to be the creator of Pakistan. Jinnah is referred to as Quaid-e-Azam or the "Great Leader".
Mr. Jinnah started his career as firmly a secular Indian nationalist and later on was reluctantly converted to the cause of Muslim nationalism through the efforts of Aga Khan III, martyred Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan and Poet Philosopher Allama Iqbal all of whom are also revered to a certain extent as founding fathers. Aga Khan was also the founding president of the All India Muslim League.Choudhary Rahmat Ali coined the term Pakistan and is considered the father of the word "Pakistan". Muslim modernist and reformist Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the founder of Aligarh Educational Movement, is sometimes referred to as the father of the Two-Nation Theory, the basic principle on which Pakistan was founded.

Philippines

Jose Rizal did not live long enough to see the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain. or the subsequent defeat of the fledgling government by the United States, but he did play a prominent role in building a sense of national identity in the Philippines. A novelist and a critic, he wrote very influential books, so influential that he was exiled by the Spanish government to the southern Philippine island ofMindanao, and when he left exile, executed, on 30 December 1896. During the Philippine Commonwealth, which was still under the rule of the United States, he was declared the official National Hero of the Philippines and subsequent to Philippine Independence laws were passed requiring courses on Rizal in all secondary schools and colleges.
And Andres Bonifacio is considered as the father of Philippine Revolution. And De Facto national hero and unofficial President of the Philippines


Regards Nabeel   Copyright Wikipedia 

LIST OF TOP COMPANIES WITH FOUNDERS

Asalam Walaikum 


Given below are the name of a few companies with there founders . 


1."Tata Group" was Founded by Jamsedji Tata in 1868.
2."Reliance Industries" was Founded by Dhirubhai Ambani in 1977.
3."Microsoft" was Founded by Bill Gates, Paul Allen in 1975.
4."General Electric" was Founded by Thomas Edison, Elihu Thomson and Edwin J. Houston in 1878.
5."American" International Group was Founded by Cornelius Vander Starr in 1919.
6."HSBC" was Founded by Thomas Sutherland in 1865.
7."ExxonMobil" was Founded by John D. Rockefeller in 1870.
8."Royal Dutch/Shell Group" was Founded by Marcus Samuel in 1907.
9."JPMorgan" Chase was Founded by Henry S. Morgan, Harold Stanley, Bear Chuhta in 1799.
10."UBS AG" was Founded by Richard M. Scrushy, Rainer-Marc Frey in 1854.
11."Toyota Motor" was Founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937.
12."AT&T" was Founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1983.
13."Wal-Mart Stores" was Founded by Sam Walton in 1962.
14."Sony" was Founded by Akio Morita, Masaru Ibuka in 1946.
15."Google" was Founded by Sergey M. Brin, Lawrence E. Page in 1998.
16."Yahoo" was Founded by Jerry Yang, David Filo in 1995.
17."ArcelorMittal" was Founded by Lakshmi Mittal in 2006.
18."Ford Motor Company" was Founded by Henry Ford in 1903.
19."Amazon" was Founded by Jeffrey P. Bezos in 1994.
20."Genentech" was Founded by Robert A. Swanson and Dr. Herbert Boyer in 1976.
21."Wegmans Food Markets" was Founded by John and Walter Wegman in 1916.
22."Valero Energy" was Founded by William R. Klesse (CEO) in 1980.
23."W.L. Gore & Associates" was Founded by Wilbert (Bill) Lee Gore and Genevieve (Vieve) Walton Gore in 1958.
24."Container Store" was Founded by Garrett, John Mullen in 1978.
25."J.M. Smucker" was Founded by Jerome Monroe Smucker in 1897.
26."Recreational Equipment" was Founded by Lloyd and Mary Anderson in 1938.
27."Boston Consulting Group" was Founded by Bruce Henderson in 1963.
28."Quicken Loans" was Founded by Dan Gilbert in 1985.
29."Whole Foods Market" was Founded by John Mackey in 1980.
30."Republic Bancorp" was Founded by Steven E. Trager (CEO), Bernard M. Trager in 1982.
31."Alston & Bird" was Founded by Robert P. Jones in 1893.
32."QuikTrip" was Founded by Chester Cadieux and Burt B. Holmes in 1958.
33."American Century Investments" was Founded by James E. Stowers in 1958.
34."Qualcomm" was Founded by Irwin Jacobs, Andrew Viterbi, Harvey White, Adelia Coffman, Andrew Cohen, Klein Gilhousen, and Franklin Antonio in 1985.
35."David Weekley Homes" was Founded by David Weekley in 1976.
36."Cisco Systems" was Founded by Len Bosack, Sandy Lerner, Richard Troiano in 1984.
37."Goldman Sachs" was Founded by Marcus Goldman in 1869.
38."Network Appliance" was Founded by David Hitz, James Lau in 1992.
39."Starbucks" was Founded by Zev Siegl, Jerry Baldwin and Gordon Bowker in 1971.
40."SAS Institute" was Founded by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig in 1976.
41."Nugget Markets" was Founded by William and Mack Stille in 1926.
42."CDW" was Founded by Michael Krasny in 1984.
43."American Fidelity Assurance" was Founded by Cameron family in 1960.
44."American Express" was Founded by Henry Wells, William Fargo and John Warren Butterfield in 1850.
45."Milliken & Company" was Founded by Seth Milliken in 1865.
46."Amgen" was Founded by George B. Rathmann in 1980.
47."JM Family Enterprises" was Founded by James M. (Jim) Moran in 1968.
48."The Timberland Company" was Founded by Nathan Swartz in 1952.
49."Intuit" was Founded by Tom Proulx in 1983.
50."SRA International" was Founded by Dr. Ernst Volgenau in 1978.
51."Nordstrom" was Founded by John W. Nordstrom in 1901.
52."AFLAC" was Founded by Bill Amos, John Amos and Paul Amos in 1955.
53."Infosys" was Founded by N R Narayana Murthy, Nandan Nilekani, N. S. Raghavan, Kris Gopalakrishnan, S. D. Shibulal, K. Dinesh and Ashok Arora in 1981.
54."Mahindra Satyam" was Founded by B Ramalinga Raju in 1987.
55."Essar Group" was Founded by Shashi Ruia and Ravi Ruia in 1969.
56."Wipro Technologies" was Founded by M. H. Premji in 1945.
57."Hewlett-Packard" was Founded by Bill Hewlett nad David Packard in 1939.
58."Nokia" was Founded by Fredrik Idestam in 1865.
59."Motorola, Inc." was Founded by Paul Galvin and Joseph Galvin in 1928.
60."LG Group" was Founded by Koo In-Hwoi in 1947.
61."Total S.A." was Founded by Ernest Mercier in 1924.





Regards Nabeel 

Monday, December 20, 2010

Information on Human Body


SOME IMPORTANT FACTS THAT ALMOST MOST OF US DON'T KNOW 

In 24 hours, An average human heart beats 1,03,689 times.
In 24 hours, An average human Lungs respire 23,045 times.
In 24 hours, An average human Blood flows 16,80,000 miles.
An average human Nails grow 0.00007 inches in every 24 hours, .
An average human Hair grows 0.01715 inches in 24 hours, .
In 24 hours, An average human Take 2.9 pounds Water (including all liquids).
In 24 hours, An average human Take 3.25 pounds FOOD.
In 24 hours, An average human Breathe 438 cubic feet AIR.
In 24 hours, An average human Lose 85.60, BODY TEMPERATURE.
In 24 hours, An average human Produce 1.43 pints SWEAT.
In 24 hours, An average human Speak 4,800 WORDS.
In 24 hours, An average human During SLEEP move 25.4 times.
The fastest human beings runs only about 30 kilometres per hour (18 miles per hour).
About 10% of the world’s population is left-handed.
A person afflicted with hexadectylism has six fingers or six toes on one or both hands and feet
A human eye blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!
The vocabulary of the average person consists of 5,000 to 6,000 words.
The average person laughs about 15 times a day
Fingernails grow nearly 4 times faster than toenails!
Never hold your nose and cover your mouth when sneezing, as it can blow out your eyeballs.
People who ride on roller coasters have a higher chance of having a blood clot in the brain.
Sneezing stops heart beat for a second and then continues.
Shape of the backbone is important to have sufficient breathing.
Like fingerprints, everyone’s tongue print is different.

C Programming Language History

Dennis Ritchie, Developer / Inventor of C Programing Language, Unix
- Dennis Ritchie


What is or is not implemented in the kernel represents both a great responsibility and a great power. It is a soap-box platform on 'the way things should be done.' Even so, if 'the way' is too radical, no one will follow it. Every important decision was weighed carefully. Throughout, simplicity has been substituted for efficiency. Complex algorithms are used only if their complexity can be localized.
- Ken Thompson; UNIX Implementation; The Bell System Technical Journal; July - August 1978.


The development of Unix in the C language made it uniquely portable and improvable.
The first version of Unix was written in the low-level PDP-7 assembler language. Soon after, a language called TMG was created for the PDP-7 by R. M. McClure. Using TMG to develop a FORTRAN compiler, Ken Thompson instead ended up developing a compiler for a new high-level language he called B, based on the earlier BCPL language developed by Martin Richard. Where it might take several pages of detailed PDP-7 assembly code to accomplish a given task, the same functionality could typically be expressed in a higher level language like B in just a few lines. B was thereafter used for further development of the Unix system, which made the work much faster and more convenient.


When the PDP-11 computer arrived at Bell Labs, Dennis Ritchie built on B to create a new language called C which inherited Thompson's taste for concise syntax, and had a powerful mix of high-level functionality and the detailed features required to program an operating system. Most of the components of Unix were eventually rewritten in C, culminating with the kernel itself in 1973. Because of its convenience and power, C went on to become the most popular programming language in the world over the next quarter century.


This development of Unix in C had two important consequences:
  • Portability. It made it much easier to port Unix to newly developed computers, because it eliminated the need to translate the entire operating system to the new assemble language by hand:
    • First, write a C-to-assembly language compiler for the new machine.
    • Then use the new compiler to automatically translate the Unix C language source code into the new machine's assembly language.
    • Finally, write only a small amount of new code where absolutely required by hardware differences with the new machine.
  • Improvability. It made Unix easy to customize and improve by any programmer that could learn the high-level C programming language. Many did learn C, and went on to experiment with modifications to the operating system, producing many useful new extensions and enhancements.

An Exploration of Programming Languages

Today's computer programmer has many languages to choose from, but what's the difference between them? What are these languages used for? How can we categorize them in useful ways? 

These days, programming languages are becoming more and more general and all-purpose, but they still have their specializations, and each language has its disadvantages and advantages. 

Languages can generally be divided into a few basic types, though many languages support more than one programming style. This following list isn't all inclusive or as fine-grained as possible, but it brings out some of the basic design decisions behind languages.


Types of Programing Languages :

  • Procedural :
    The programming style you're probably used to, procedural languages execute a sequence of statements that lead to a result. In essence, a procedural language expresses the procedure to be followed to solve a problem. Procedural languages typically use many variables and have heavy use of loops and other elements of "state", which distinguishes them from functional programming languages. Functions in procedural languages may modify variables or have other side effects (e.g., printing out information) other than the value that the function returns.
  • Functional :
    Employing a programming style often contrasted with procedural programming, functional programs typically make little use of stored state, often eschewing loops in favor of recursive functions. The primary focus of functional programming is on the return values of functions, and side effects and other means storing state are strongly discouraged. For instance, in a pure functional language, if a function is called, it is expected that the function not modify any global variables or perform any output. It may, however, make recursive calls and change the parameters of those calls. Functional languages are often simpler syntactically and make it easier to work on abstract problems, but they can also be "further from the machine" in that their programming model makes it hard to understand exactly how the code is translated into machine language (which can be problematic for system programming).
  • Object-oriented :
    Object-oriented programming views the world as a collection of objects that have internal data and external means of accessing parts of that data. The goal of object-oriented programming is to think about the problem by dividing it into a collection of objects that provide services that can be used to solve a particular problem. One of the main tenets of object oriented programming is encapsulation -- that everything an object will need should be inside the object. Object-oriented programming also emphasizes reusability through inheritance and the ability to extend current implementations without having to change a great deal of code by using polymorphism.
  • Scripting :
    Scripting languages are often procedural and may contain elements of object-oriented languages, but they fall into their own category because they are typically not meant to be full-fledged programming languages with support for large system development. For instance, they may not have compile-time type checking or require variable declarations. Typically, scripting languages require little syntax to get started but make it very easy to make a mess.
  • Logic :
    Logic programming languages allow programmers to make declarative statements (possibly in first-order logic: "grass implies green" for example) and then allow the computer to reason about the consequences of those statements. In a sense, logic programming is not telling the computer how to do something, but placing constraints on what it should consider doing.
To call these categories "language types" is really a bit misleading. It's possible to program in an object-oriented style in C, or a functional style in a scripting language. In truth, most modern languages incorporate features and ideas from multiple domains, which only serves to increase the richness and usefulness of these languages. Nevertheless, most languages do not excel at all styles of programming.

Some Popular Programming Languages

C++ is well-suited for large projects because it has an object-oriented structure. People can collaborate on one program by breaking it up into parts and having a small group or even one individual work on each part. The object-oriented structure also allows code to be reused a lot, which can cut down development time. C++ is also a fairly efficient language - although many C programmers will disagree. 

C is a popular language, especially in game programming, because it doesn't have the extra packaging of the object-oriented C++. Programmers use C because it makes programs slightly faster and smaller than programs written in C++. You might wonder, however, whether it's worth giving up the reusability of C++ to get the small increase in performance with C, especially when C++ can, where necessary, be written in a C programming style. 

Pascal is primarily a teaching language. Few industrial programs are written in Pascal. Pascal tends to use keywords instead of C-style braces and symbols, so it is a bit easier for beginners to understand than languages like C++. Still, not everyone thinks Pascal is just for the schools. Borland, the huge compiler software company, has been pushing Delphi as an industrial strength programming language. Delphi is an object-oriented version of Pascal, and currently, only Borland compilers use it. 

Fortran is a number-crunching program, and it is still used by scientists because the language allows variables of any size up to the memory limit of the machine. Fortran is especially convenient for engineers, who have to mathematically model and compute values to high precision. Fortran, however, isn't nearly as flexible as C or C++. Programming in Fortran is rigid, with strict rules on whitespace and formatting, which sometimes makes reading Fortran programs difficult. 

Java is a multi-platform language that is especially useful in networking. Of course, the most famous usage of Java is on the web, with Java applets, but Java is also used to build cross-platform programs that stand alone. Since it resembles C++ in syntax and structure, learning Java is usually quite easy for most C++ programmers. Java offers the advantages provided by object-oriented programming, such as reusability; on the other hand, it can be difficult to write highly efficient code in Java, and Swing, its primary user interface, is notoriously slow. Nevertheless, Java has increased in speed in recent years, and version 1.5 offers some new features for making programming easier. 

Perl was originally a file management language for Unix, but it has become well known for its use in CGI programming. CGI (Common Gateway Interface) is a term for programs that web servers can execute to allow web pages additional capabilities. Perl is great with regular expression pattern matching, which is a method for searching text. Perl can be used for databases and other useful server functions, and it is simple to pick up the basics if you have experience in any imperative language. Web hosting services prefer Perl over C++ as a CGI language because the web hosts can inspect Perl script files, since they're just text files, while C++ is compiled, so it can't be inspected for potentially dangerous code. Perl is, however, notorious for its "write once" style of code -- it's very easy to write Perl scripts taking advantage of lots of shortcuts that you later cannot understand. 

PHP is a common language for webpage design that is sometimes used as a scripting language in *nix. PHP is designed for rapid website development, and as a result contains features that make it easy to link to databases, generate HTTP headers, and so forth. As a scripting language, it contains a relatively simple set of basic components that allow the programmer to quickly get up to speed, though it does have more sophisticated object-oriented features. 

LISP is functional language used mostly in computer science research. LISP is unusual in that it stores (nearly) all data in lists, which are like arrays, but without index numbers. The syntax for lists is very simple, making it easy for programmers to implement complex structures. 

Scheme A well-known variant of LISP, Scheme has a slightly simpler syntax and not quite as many features. A common joke is that any large project undertaken in Scheme will result in the reimplementation of most of LISP. Nevertheless, Scheme is quite popular in academic circles and is the introductory language of MIT's computer science department (and is taught as part of Harvard's introductory sequence). Scheme's simplicity makes it a good way to get started solving problems instead of worrying about programming language syntax. 

Of course, there are still many, many languages not discussed, a few major ones being Prolog, Tcl, Python, COBOL, Smalltalk, and C#. Those are generally related or similar to the programming languages I have described above. The take home message is that different programming languages have their advantages and disadvantages, and picking the appropriate language for the task is often an important step in the process of developing an application or program.